One of my earliest memories of awe when learning how to program computers as a kid was wondering how the computer takes bits in the CPU and turns them into an image on a screen. When you don’t know how most of the system works, it’s easy to conclude that it is basically magic, and that the knowledge was arcane to the point of being inaccessible without tons of background in engineering and science.

As I grew up, this question never really left my mind, and really grew into the more abstract question of how a computer works at every level. Once you get into the high level of software and languages like C and Swift, you can abstract away a lot of the questions into programming language theory and ignore things like transistors and voltage. But peeling back the curtain to reveal what is going on in the circuitry lies a world that is both simple in its principles and ever complex in the myriad of tricks used to keep this wrangled chaos ticking in utter precision.

I started watching Ben Eater’s incredible YouTube series on building a computer on breadboards a couple years ago. I’ve watched the whole thing end-to-end multiple times, and have built (or tried) a couple of the modules, including the clock and the ALU. I went from knowing very little about electronics to having a fairly broad understanding of how circuits work, at least in theory.

On the other side, I’ve tried writing video game console emulators, notably a Game Boy emulator in Swift which works well enough to understand how a higher level system works with all its pieces put together. The emulator is largely unusable (hence why it doesn’t exist in an open source form) but it can run the start of a couple games, generate some graphics and sound, and process user input. Over the years I’d heard about things like Verilog and VHDL being used to define hardware in code. And in the last year or two I’ve gained an understanding of what FPGAs are (especially thanks to the MiSTer project and its focus on cycle-accurate emulation).

So in my ever expanding pursuit to learn how each piece of the computer works, I’ve picked up an FPGA development board, the DE10-Nano, and have begun using the Intel Quartus software to learn how to program it using Verilog. So far, I’ve gotten a couple small and ultra-basic projects working, namely getting an LED to blink based on an internal 50MHz clock and a clock divider, and a basic unclocked two-bit adder. As I continue going down this route, I have a number of project ideas I want to try, including:

  • emulating Ben Eater’s breadboard computer
  • a video generator that outputs something to HDMI
  • an analog to HDMI video converter and scaler, akin to the OSSC
  • an HDMI to analog video converter, so I can play PC games like Undertale on my old CRT TV
  • a Dreamcast VMU clone
  • a basic graphics card
  • a RISC-V CPU
  • some kind of module for my modular synthesizer

Will I be successful at actually building any of these? Who knows! But in the end, I’ll get a few steps closer to understanding how computers truly work at the silicon and chip level. And the journey is definitely more valuable than the destination.


Yesterday Abby and I picked up this beaut, the 2018 Honda Clarity Touring-class in crimson red. It’s a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), which means it can run on traditional gasoline as well as on electrical power. But where most hybrids only get energy from the engine and the kinetic energy of the car itself, this can be plugged into the wall and charged directly from the electrical grid. Many owner reports have said that it’s very common to use only electric power when driving without the gas engine kicking on at all, which has been true for us so far. And where we live, our energy utility gets most of its power from green sources like nuclear 1 and hydroelectric power, which makes it pretty clean to drive when the gas engine is off.

So why go with a plug-in hybrid, rather than go all in on electric? Primarily because of the limitations of electric, both in infrastructure and in speed. We go on a fair number of road trips, and while electric charging stations are becoming more ubiquitous every day, it is still far from perfect. Gas stations are ubiquitous even in the most secluded places. But crucially, a gas tank can be filled in minutes, vs the hour that even the fastest Tesla Supercharger can recharge a battery. That’s a big delay in a trip, and it assumes that there will be a Supercharger where you need one. (Interestingly, there is a Clarity model that is available with hydrogen fuel cell technology, which has many of the environmental benefits of EVs with the filling time of gas tanks, but those are exceptionally hard to find outside of California, which is the only place in the US you can get one.) As we’re only a one-car home, having a single car that is optimized for pure electric driving day-to-day plus a gas engine for 10+ hour road trips was a perfect fit for our needs.

This car is a delight to drive, with an emphasis on comfort of the driver and the passengers. The interior is spacious and open, with huge windows and pretty small pillars. The back seat has plenty of room to fit 3 adults, even with the seats all the way back, and even has some handy phone pockets in the seats. At over 4,000 pounds empty, it’s heavy and has a low center gravity that makes it really grip the road well, holding you in your seat without jostling you about over small bumps. While it’s not supposed to be a sports car, it has a little kick to it when you really hit the gas accelerator. And it’s remarkably quiet and free of engine and air noise, even on the highways.

Technology wise, this isn’t the most sophisticated car for a gadget guy like me, but it does have plenty of toys. The gauges cluster is all screens, but even on a super sunny afternoon, there was no problems with visibility. The center console entertainment center is definitely a little slow and light on functionality, but you can fix that by plugging in your phone and using Android Auto or CarPlay. It has a back-up camera and a blind spot camera on the right side, but not one on the left or in the front, both of which I would’ve upgraded for if they were available.

But the tech in this car holds some smart driving features that I am loving beyond anything else. The first one is a simple thing called Brake Hold. When it’s on, if you come to a stop at an intersection, it holds the brake in place until you accelerate again, so you can take your foot off the brake pedal. Small thing, but it can really reduce driving fatigue (especially when you use the regenerative braking to slow before intersections). The second is lane-keeping assistance, which will automatically keep you in your lane on highways, even around some curvy stretches. The third is adaptive cruise control, which lets you set a target speed and distance you want to keep behind the car in front of you, slowing all the way to a complete stop. When we were driving home from the dealership in rush hour traffic, the car was doing literally all the work of managing stop-and-go traffic with people merging in front of you. It was delightful, and made the usually-stressful experience of traffic jams almost relaxing.

This car has been great so far, and I’m looking forward to pushing it further. If you’re a one-car house and need both electric performance plus road trip capacity without having to stress about electric infrastructure or hours-long charging, a plug-in hybrid is a pretty great choice. The Clarity is probably the best implementation of PHEV on the road today, and you should consider checking it out.

If you’re reading this, then that means I’ve finished upgrading my website to Gatsby 2. Gatsby is a static site generator that uses React and GraphQL to build the entire website as a set of static HTML files, which I used to build this version of my website. Version 2 has a number of really promising improvements like a component for querying GraphQL from anywhere and improved Webpack and Babel support (which will hopefully let me start trickling in some TypeScript).

The well documented migration process was not as smooth as I’d hoped, but that was to be expected. Gatsby does require some comfort with debugging Webpack and React apps before you can really use it well, and this was no different. The biggest reason for this was that I had a .babelrc file at the root of my project which was causing some difficult to debug problems (and ones with no search results). Ultimately the most important thing I did was to just throw that file out and replace it with the default, a step that is not emphasized enough in the docs. It certainly could have gone much worse and once I discovered this source of my problems, it was much smoother sailing.

Overall the migration took about 8 hours. This included time spent following the migration guide and debugging problems, as well as modernizing some of the new tools in Gatsby 2. Namely, the use of the new StaticQuery API for inlining queries. An example of this is that lovely little photo of me that’s on every page. Previously in Gatsby 1, each page had a single GraphQL query that could be run, so everything had to be shoved in there, including for images like that photo. That meant each page had duplicated query logic for fetching that image. Now, that has been rolled into a component that uses StaticQuery to fetch the image, which simplifies the page-level queries quite a bit. There’s a few ways I use that kind of pattern to clean up the site. You shouldn’t notice anything, but it makes working on the site here much simpler, especially if I want to add something that relies on a query.

I’ve been avoiding ripping this bandage off for awhile, but now it looks like it’s done and I can start using the new features. Gatsby’s got a rich plugin library, including some powerful integrations with service workers. I had this enabled originally but shut it off because it couldn’t detect cache changes very well with it, but Gatsby 2’s updated version of Webpack should make that more viable. There’s also some new query tracing tools which will help me get build times down; right now it takes about 3 minutes to build on the (admittedly very slow) server I run it on, and I’d like to get that to be under a minute. And I am dying to start moving stuff to TypeScript, which Babel 7 now supports.

Congratulations to the Gatsby team on shipping and doing such a huge release!

I created an account on, you can find me on If you’re into that sort of thing, you can follow me over there.

Eventually I hope to create an ActivityPub setup that can publish directly to my own site and the Mastodon network. But until then, this is good enough. Between Twitter’s ongoing moral cowardice and their ongoing hostility towards the developers that made them what they are, I can’t continue siloing my data there.

But Mastodon is so far revealing itself to be much more pleasant than Twitter, and it has some interesting forward-thinking decisions that I’ll talk more about later. In the meantime, go find me on there. You can sign up on the instance I use,, or you can sign up at any number of other instances, such as those found on or Even if you sign up on a different instance, just search for my handle and it should work just fine.


Homebrew Website Club Seattle Notes

Tonight I went to my first Homebrew Website Club at the Wayward Coffeehouse, a real nice coffee shop. I got to meet Doug Beal who put the Seattle club together. It was mostly just the two of us, as well as Margo Vansynghel, a reporter who was interested in what we were up to and how it related to other tech stories about silos like Facebook.

Neither of us really had been to one of these events before, so we weren’t sure what to do. We mostly worked on our own sites, and helped explain some of the IndieWeb principles about things like data ownership and building tools for yourself. I think by the end of it she had sent her first Webmention, a standard I need to learn how to use soon for this site.

I continued working on the syndication system for this site I outlined in the last post. I’ve now got the DynamoDB set up working, so when I commit any post change to the website, it gets built and triggers a Lambda function to scan the entire site for changes, logging those into DynamoDB. This creates a stream of create/update/delete events that other Lambda functions can be triggered by. With tonight’s work, I hooked a new microservice up to that which publishes created posts (but not updated or deleted posts) to a Telegram channel. It works locally with hardcoded keys, so now I just need to make it work when deployed, which should be quick; I just need to figure out how to store credentials properly. Then I can start building out more syndication methods.

Toward the end, we answered some questions about IndieWeb, took our group photo, and went our separate ways. It was a great time, and hopefully we can start building out a proper Seattle club. If you’re interested in taking control of your online data, consider stopping by an event near you, or a virtual one online. They take place every two weeks; the next one will be on August 22.

I’m joining the iOS team at Tumblr!

Here’s a secret that’s been tough to hold in for the last couple weeks.

For the last few years, I’ve been watching Tumblr get serious about mobile. I first met mb​ and bryan​ while working at Pocket, where I worked to improve their native Tumblr integration. I lobbied to add Tumblr support to shots​. I’ve integrated the Tumblr SDK into my own apps and hobby projects. 

As I’ve become more fandom-aware, Tumblr became a place I’d frequently stop to check out, not just work with. And over time, I kept noticing how good Tumblr’s products had gotten. Subtle things, like little animations here or there, or well-written release notes, or specific platform integration where it mattered, or things just getting a little faster each release. 

Quality like this isn’t an accident; it’s intentional, and it has to be reflected throughout an entire organization, or it won’t survive. There’s a team of super smart and talented people behind Tumblr’s products working really hard to make Tumblr better every day. That’s the kind of environment I want to work in. One where you’ll be challenged to do your best work and learn on the spot, but also be supported awesome people to make it happen.

So a few weeks ago, I reached out to them to see if we could work together. Today, I’m very excited to announce that, in September, I’ll be joining the iOS team at Tumblr to make the mobile Tumblr experience even better. I’ll be spending a little time in New York City to get started, and then working out of the new San Francisco office.

I’m very excited to get started, and working to make Tumblr an even better app for you. See you soon!